Tourist Routes Sibiu
The fortification of Sibiu started at the beginning of the 13th century. The first fortification surrounds the Romanic church, location on which ”Sf. Maria” Gothic Parochial Church was subsequently built, constituting the first fortification precincts, around the current Huet Square. The walls of the first precincts are made of stone. The substance of the initial fortification is embedded into the walls of the buildings subsequently built on the fortification’s perimeter.
The Stairs Tower is visibly preserved with alterations carried out in the 19th century. The fortification (13th century) was extended by a second precinct comprising the current Small Square. The wall starts at Sf. Iacob Chapel (currently demolished) and it continues roundly to the Council Tower, following a circular curved route to the Goldsmiths Square, from where it descends to the lower town until the current Argintarilor Street, encompassing the Rest Home Church, the rest home and ending at the Tower Gate.
The two primary precincts I and II of the fortification enable the access to the citadel through the older Tower Gate, the gate below the Council Tower provided with a gate and portcullis, with a preserved stone track, the third gate being at the end of the Fingerling Stairs, massively fortified with a towers system. The entire city benefited from a hydro-technical system, ducts, sluices and ponds, which enabled the controlled flooding of the surrounding exterior area, constituting an additional fortification unfavourable to the approach of the walls by the heavy artillery. Fortunately in the Brukenthal Museum there is a wide oil-painted panorama of Sibiu City painted by Franz Neuhausen 1808.
The fast expansion of the city and the increase of the internal army disturbances, but especially the dangers of Ottoman attacks, required the construction of precincts III and IV, that include the entire upper town and lower town; the access to the city was done through Cisnădiei Gate located at the South-Western end of Bălcescu Street (marking on the asphalt), on the North-Western side through the Pit Gate which correspond with a stone bridge over Cibin, on the North-eastern side through Elisabeta Gate (in the area of the railway station). Precinct III built before precinct IV, used to communicate with the lower town through an entirely preserved tower gate that has a common wing with the old city hall and is dating since the 14th century (dates according to the historic layout elaborated in 1875). The fortification is at the level of the military technique at the time, the walls are provided from place to place, rhythmically, with 41 guard towers with pinnacles and mouths.
The improvement of the artillery in the 17th century imposes a massive Vauban type fortification on the Northern side most exposed to the attacks. The Southern corner of the burg, receiving a second massive brick wall (16th – 17th century), artillery fire resistant, provided with three artillery platform bastions and a platform tower: Haller Bastion, Thick Tower, Cisnădiei Gate Bastion, Soldisch Bastion. The South-Western side protected by the course of Cibin River, receives Saggesser Bastion as an advanced fortification, as defence of the Saggesser Gate and Burger Bastion, followed by the small Coopers Bastion.
The exterior fortification is followed by a floodable ditch and bulwark. the following are preserved to this day: Haller Bastion, Thick Tower, Helltauer Tor Bastion, Soldisch Bastion and from the South-Western 4th precinct two massive towers, one located currently in the Leather Merchants Tower with octagonal base on Pulberăriei Street and the Munitions Tower located on Zidului Street inside of Independenţa Vocational School.
Route Stop Points
1. Turnul Sfatului
2. Pasajul Scărilor
3. Turnul Scărilor
4. Turnul Scării Aurarilor
5. Turnul Pielarilor
6. Bastionul Soldisch
7. Turnul Archebuzierilor
8. Turnul Dulgherilor
9. Turnul Gros
10. Bastionul Haller